Gm Torque Converter Identification Numbers – 4L60E Torque Converter Differences

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Gm torque converter identification numbers

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A torque converter has the impeller related to the engine, whereas the turbine is related to the mechanical portion of the transmission. Upon engine startup, the transmission oil pump pressurizes the converter with ATF. The impeller throws the ATF into bucket-like receptacles of the turbine and generates some strain on the turbine within the identical route because the impeller is turning. After placing the turbine, the ATF is deflected again towards the impeller. As the engine velocity increases, further ATF velocity develops because of impeller action, and and not using a stator installed, the ATF can be mirrored again from the turbine to the impeller in a course that impedes the impeller operation. With a stator installed, the stator vanes redirect the returning ATF in order that it strikes the impeller components within the right direction.

The TH400 converter proven is from a 1969 Pontiac transmission. Unlike the 4L60 torque converters, no grab become used contained in the unit.

At the identical time, the stator provides the power from the returning ATF to the turbine shaft. This energy, added to the unique power transferred from the impeller to the turbine, is what causes the “torque multiplication” in a converter at low RPM. In a standard inventory converter it’s a few 2:1 multiplication factor. As the RPM increases, the attitude of the returning oil from the turbine modifications and, at some point, the stator fins start to hamper the circulate of ATF. The one-way (roller) grasp within the stator permits the stator to start to show on the shaft in order to not have an effect on the ATF flow. At that point, the converter is “coupled,” and the converter now operates at an approximate 1:1 ratio.

The inventory TH400 torque converter, for example, multiples torque 2:1 at low RPM in order that a moderateratio first gear might be used. The torque-converter multiplication and the 2.48 gear give a 5:1 stall ratio, and this mix gives wonderful acceleration from a stop. Second gear is 1.48:1, and third is 1:1 (direct drive), so the steps between every gear are comparatively small, which gives environment friendly and tender shifts. Some torque multiplication additionally happens in second and third gears at decrease RPM.

The entrance power disguise is a heavy-duty shell that bolts to the engine’s flywheel or flex plate.

To get rid of torque multiplication at greater car speeds, a grasp became added to the torque converter on the 700-R4 and 4L60 transmissions. This offered a right away 1:1 pressure between the engine’s flywheel and the transmission’s enter shaft. Adding a grab to the torque converter not solely offered an instantaneous coupling between the engine and transmission, it lowered warmth production, lowered engine RPM, and elevated the efficient energy switch to the rear wheels. When driving a car outfitted with a 4L60 transmission and torque-converter clutch, the appliance of the TCC feels very similar to an extra shift. If the car is provided with an engine tachometer, the driving force will discover the engine RPM decreases slightly. If a heavy load is positioned on the engine, requiring heavy throttle position, the TCC will release and supply torque multiplication to take some load off the engine. This will even permit it to extra successfully switch the extra energy required to extend the car speed, or keep it on a steep grade, for example. The unlocking of the TCC might additionally coincide with a shift to a decrease gear. Exactly how that is performed is defined in earlier chapters. Basically, the TCC is barely employed for mild load and lightweight throttle application, and is disengaged for heavy- and full-throttle positions and when coasting.

To present how a trendy 4L60 converter works, I have acquired a pattern from Continental Torque Converters. The numerous inner elements are shown, with a quick description of their roles in torqueconverter function.

4l60e torque converter differences

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The TH700R4 became renamed “4L60” (RPO MD8) following the recent General Motors naming conference when the digital version, 4L60E (RPO M30), become phased in because the 4L60 become being phased out. This occurred in 1993 for trucks, vans, and SUVs, and 1994 for rear wheel pressure passenger cars. In 1996, a bolt-on bell housing became phased in (along with a six-bolt tailhousing) for S-10 Trucks and S-10 Blazers and foundation in 1998 for all different applications. Beginning in 1998 a brand new 300mm torque converter with improved higher-capacity internals, 300mm type enter shaft, and 300mm type pump become additionally launched on fashions coupled to a Gen III Small Block. The 4L60E is rated to deal with as much as 360 ft⋅lb (490 N⋅m) of torque. It weighs 133 kilos with out transmission fluid.[1]

The 4L60E household of transmissions use 2 shift solenoids, initially referred to as Shift Solenoid A & Shift Solenoid B, later modified to conform with OBD II (On Board Diagnostics revision 2) laws to 1-2 Shift Solenoid & 2-3 Shift solenoid. By activating and deactivating the solenoids in a predetermined sample by means of means of the PCM, four distinct gear ratios could be achieved. The final 4L60Es have been solely utilized within the GM Vans in 2013, earlier than being changed by means of the 6L80E. The shift solenoid pattern, additionally occasionally known as solenoid firing order, is as follows;

1-2 Solenoid2-3 Solenoid
1st GearOnOn
2nd GearOffOn
3rd GearOffOff
4th GearOnOff

Are torque converters universal

are torque converters universal is a question that many people are interested in. That is why this article is intended to help people answer that question. It makes you know that are torque converters universal you. So please take some time to read this article.

Theory of operation[edit]

Torque converter equations of movement are ruled via means of Leonhard Euler’s eighteenth century turbomachine equation:

The equation expands to incorporate the fifth energy of radius; as a result, torque converter houses are very depending on the dimensions of the device.

Torque converter elements[edit]

A fluid coupling is a two-element power that’s incapable of multiplying torque, whereas a torque converter has not less than one further element—the stator—which alters the drive’s traits throughout times of excessive slippage, producing a rise in output torque.

In a torque converter there are not less than three rotating elements: the impeller, which is mechanically pushed by the prime mover; the turbine, which drives the load; and the stator, which is interposed between the impeller and turbine in order that it may alter oil circulation coming back from the turbine to the impeller. The basic torque converter design dictates that the stator be prevented from rotating beneath any condition, therefore the time period stator. In practice, however, the stator is fixed on an overrunning clutch, which prevents the stator from counter-rotating with respect to the prime mover however permits ahead rotation.

Modifications to the essential three factor design have been periodically incorporated, particularly in purposes the place greater than common torque multiplication is required. Most commonly, these have taken the shape of a number of generators and stators, every set being designed to supply differing quantities of torque multiplication. For example, the Buick Dynaflow automated transmission became a non-shifting design and, below common conditions, relied solely upon the converter to multiply torque. The Dynaflow used a 5 factor converter to supply the huge selection of torque multiplication wanted to propel a heavy vehicle.

Although not strictly an element of basic torque converter design, many automotive converters embrace a lock-up grab to enhance cruising energy transmission effectivity and scale back heat. The software of the grab locks the turbine to the impeller, inflicting all energy transmission to be mechanical, thus taking out losses related to fluid drive.

Operational phases[edit]

A torque converter has three levels of operation:

The key to the torque converter’s potential to multiply torque lies within the stator. In the basic fluid coupling design, durations of excessive slippage trigger the fluid circulate coming back from the turbine to the impeller to oppose the course of impeller rotation, resulting in a serious lack of effectivity and the era of appreciable waste heat. Under the identical situation in a torque converter, the returning fluid might be redirected via the stator in order that it aids the rotation of the impeller, rather than impeding it. The result’s that a lot of the power within the returning fluid is recovered and added to the power being utilized to the impeller via the prime mover. This motion causes a considerable enlarge within the mass of fluid being directed to the turbine, producing a rise in output torque. Since the returning fluid is initially touring in a course reverse to impeller rotation, the stator will likewise try to counter-rotate because it forces the fluid to vary direction, an impact that’s prevented via the one-way stator clutch.

Unlike the radially straight blades utilized in a plain fluid coupling, a torque converter’s turbine and stator use angled and curved blades. The blade form of the stator is what alters the trail of the fluid, forcing it to coincide with the impeller rotation. The matching curve of the turbine blades helps to properly direct the returning fluid to the stator so the latter can do its job. The form of the blades is critical as minor permutations may end in vital modifications to the converter’s performance.

During the stall and acceleration phases, by which torque multiplication occurs, the stator stays stationary because of the motion of its one-way clutch. However, because the torque converter approaches the coupling phase, the power and quantity of the fluid coming back from the turbine will regularly decrease, inflicting strain on the stator to likewise decrease. Once within the coupling phase, the returning fluid will reverse route and now rotate within the route of the impeller and turbine, an impact which can try to forward-rotate the stator. At this point, the stator grasp will launch and the impeller, turbine and stator will all (more or less) flip as a unit.

Unavoidably, a few of the fluid’s kinetic power could be misplaced because of friction and turbulence, inflicting the converter to generate waste warmth (dissipated in lots of purposes by means of water cooling). This effect, sometimes known as pumping loss, might be most pronounced at or close to stall conditions. In trendy designs, the blade geometry minimizes oil velocity at low impeller speeds, which permits the turbine to be stalled for lengthy durations with little hazard of overheating (as when a car with an automated transmission is stopped at a visitors sign or in visitors jam whereas nonetheless in gear).

Efficiency and torque multiplication[edit]

A torque converter can’t obtain one hundred pc coupling efficiency. The basic three factor torque converter has an effectivity curve that resembles ∩: zero effectivity at stall, usually growing effectivity through the acceleration part and occasional effectivity within the coupling phase. The lack of effectivity because the converter enters the coupling part is a results of the turbulence and fluid movement interference generated by means of means of the stator, and as beforehand mentioned, is usually conquer by mounting the stator on a one-way clutch.

Even with the convenience of the one-way stator clutch, a converter can’t obtain the identical degree of effectivity within the coupling part as an equivalently sized fluid coupling. Some loss is because of the presence of the stator (even although rotating as a element of the assembly), because it all the time generates some power-absorbing turbulence. Most of the loss, however, is brought on by means of the curved and angled turbine blades, which don’t take in kinetic power from the fluid mass as effectively as radially straight blades. Since the turbine blade geometry is an important think about the converter’s skill to multiply torque, trade-offs between torque multiplication and coupling effectivity are inevitable. In automotive applications, the place regular enhancements in gasoline financial system have been mandated via means of market forces and authorities edict, the almost common use of a lock-up snatch has helped to eradicate the converter from the effectivity equation throughout cruising operation.

The most quantity of torque multiplication produced by a converter is very depending on the dimensions and geometry of the turbine and stator blades, and is generated solely when the converter is at or close to the stall part of operation. Typical stall torque multiplication ratios fluctuate from 1.8:1 to 2.5:1 for many automotive purposes (although multi-element designs as utilized within the Buick Dynaflow and Chevrolet Turboglide might produce more). Specialized converters designed for industrial, rail, or heavy marine energy transmission programs are able to as a lot as 5.0:1 multiplication. Generally speaking, there’s a trade-off between most torque multiplication and efficiency—high stall ratio converters are likely to be comparatively inefficient under the coupling speed, whereas low stall ratio converters are likely to supply much less potential torque multiplication.

The traits of the torque converter ought to be intently matched to the torque curve of the facility supply and the meant application. Changing the blade geometry of the stator and/or turbine will trade the torque-stall characteristics, as effectively because the general effectivity of the unit. For example, drag racing automated transmissions sometimes use converters modified to supply excessive stall speeds to enhance off-the-line torque, and to get into the facility band of the engine extra quickly. Highway automobiles usually use decrease stall torque converters to restrict warmth production, and supply a extra agency feeling to the vehicle’s characteristics.

A design function as soon as present in some General Motors automated transmissions become the variable-pitch stator, through which the blades’ angle of assault can be various based on modifications in engine velocity and load. The impact of this become to differ the quantity of torque multiplication produced via the converter. At the traditional angle of attack, the stator induced the converter to supply a average quantity of multiplication however with a better degree of efficiency. If the driving force all of a sudden opened the throttle, a valve would change the stator pitch to a distinct angle of attack, growing torque multiplication on the expense of efficiency.

Some torque converters use a number of stators and/or a number of generators to supply a wider fluctuate of torque multiplication. Such multiple-element converters are extra widespread in business environments than in automotive transmissions, however automotive purposes equivalent to Buick’s Triple Turbine Dynaflow and Chevrolet’s Turboglide additionally existed. The Buick Dynaflow utilized the torque-multiplying traits of its planetary gear set together with the torque converter for low gear and bypassed the primary turbine, utilizing solely the second turbine as car velocity increased. The unavoidable trade-off with this association became low effectivity and ultimately these transmissions have been discontinued in want of the extra environment friendly three velocity models with a standard three aspect torque converter. It can additionally be came across that effectivity of torque converter is most at very low speeds.

Lock-up torque converters[edit]

As described above, impelling losses inside the torque converter scale back effectivity and generate waste heat. In trendy automotive applications, this drawback is usually prevented by means of use of a lock-up grab that bodily hyperlinks the impeller and turbine, successfully altering the converter right into a purely mechanical coupling. The result’s no slippage, and nearly no energy loss.

The first automotive software of the lock-up precept became Packard’s Ultramatic transmission, launched in 1949, which locked up the converter at cruising speeds, unlocking when the throttle become floored for brief acceleration or because the car slowed. This function became additionally current in some Borg-Warner transmissions produced through the 1950s. It fell out of choose in subsequent years because of its further complexity and cost. In the overdue Nineteen Seventies lock-up clutches began to reappear in keeping with calls for for improved gasoline economy, and at the moment are almost common in automotive applications.

Capacity and failure modes[edit]

As with a primary fluid coupling the theoretical torque potential of a converter is proportional to , the place is the mass density of the fluid (kg/m3), is the impeller velocity (rpm), and is the diameter (m).[1] In practice, the utmost torque capability is restricted via the mechanical traits of the supplies used within the converter’s components, as properly because the power of the converter to burn up warmth (often by way of water cooling). As an support to strength, reliability and financial system of production, most automotive converter housings are of welded construction. Industrial models are often assembled with bolted housings, a design function that eases the method of inspection and repair, however provides to the price of manufacturing the converter.

In excessive performance, racing and heavy obligation business converters, the pump and turbine could also be additional strengthened via a course of referred to as furnace brazing, by which molten brass is drawn into seams and joints to supply a stronger bond between the blades, hubs and annular ring(s). Because the furnace brazing course of creates a small radius on the purpose the place a blade meets with a hub or annular ring, a theoretical reduce in turbulence will occur, leading to a corresponding enlarge in efficiency.

Overloading a converter might end in a number of failure modes, a few of them probably harmful in nature:

How to identify torque converter stall

If you want to get the answer to that how to identify torque converter stall question, please read the article below right away. With this article, you will know useful information to get the answer to that question how to identify torque converter stall. So read on to get the answer you want.

What is a torque converter?

  1. A torque converter connects your engine to anything of your vehicle. Think of your car like a horse hooked up to a cart—the horse represents your engine, whereas the cart represents the weight, or “load” of your vehicle. The torque converter is just like the hitch that connects the horse to the cart, permitting it to go forward. In your personal vehicle, a torque converter interprets the rotating engine into an efficient energy source.[2] X Research source

What is stall velocity on a torque converter?

  1. 1Stall velocity is the complete RPM your vehicle reaches earlier than stalling. Within your car, a torque converter acts like a clutch, robotically changing the engine energy to your car’s transmission. As your engine creates extra power, its complete RPM increases—the stall velocity is simply the precise RPM when your engine stalls.
    • Stall velocity additionally is dependent upon your engine. If you reuse a torque converter with a special engine, the stall velocity will even be different.
  2. 2A torque converter’s elements can have an effect on the stall speed. The diameter of the converter, the complete variety of blades, and the quantity of area between every particular person factor all play an element on your converter’s complete stall speed.
    • For instance, a torque converter with numerous clearance between its internal elements may have a better stall velocity than a converter with out a lot clearance.

How do I decide a torque converter stall speed?

  1. Pick a stall velocity that’s 500 RPM greater than the beginning of your camshaft’s powerband. A camshaft is an extended rod that helps open and shut the valves to your car’s engine.[3] X Research supply As an element of your engine, camshafts function inside a sure RPM range.[4] X Research supply Add 500 RPM to the beginning variety of this range—this is the perfect stall velocity to your torque converter.[5] X Research source
    • For instance, in case your camshaft operates between 1,600 and 5,200 RPM, a great torque converter stall velocity can be 2,100 RPM.

What is road stall converter?

  1. A 2,000- or 2,400-stall converter works effectively for cam durations beneath 248 degrees. Consult the “cam card” to your camshaft—this is an informational card made by means of the manufacturer, and describes your “cam duration,” or how a long way the engine valves are rotated. If your cam period is below 248 degrees, specialists advocate going for 2,000- or 2,400-stall converter.[6] X Research source
    • If your cam period goes as much as 268 degrees, a 2,400-3,000-stall converter is better.

What measurement torque converter ought to I choose?

  1. Get a bigger torque converter for a quicker brake response. With greater torque converters, like a ten in (25 cm) model, your vehicle will shortly reply to your footbrake, even when the engine is at a excessive RPM. A smaller-sized converter, like an eight in (20 cm) model, won’t react to the brakes as quickly.[7] X Research source

What different elements ought to I consider?

  1. 1Choose a bigger torque converter for heavier vehicles. If your vehicle is on the heavier side, it’s going to put extra pressure in your torque converter. Similarly, lighter automobiles are simpler to your torque converter to handle. Heavier automobiles are likely to push your converter’s stall velocity to the limit, whereas lighter automobiles don’t create almost as a lot strain.[8] X Research source
    • Drop by means of a close-by truck give up or weighing station to see how heavy your vehicle is. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, “light-duty” automobiles are lower than 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), whereas “medium-duty” automobiles are between 10,001 and 26,000 lb (4,536 and 11,793 kg).
  2. 2Factor on your car’s rear gear ratio. Heavier automobiles are likely to have rear gears with a low gear value, like 2.73 or 3.08. Since you would like further pressure to go a heavy car, the torque converter will find yourself stalling at a better RPM. On the opposite hand, a lighter vehicle has a better gear value, and won’t have to succeed in such a excessive RPM.[9] X Research source
    • If you’ve a heavier car, you’d want a torque converter that may tackle the elevated RPM.
  3. 3Inspect your tires. Typically, automobiles with wider tires are loads sturdier and reliable. Wide tires provide assist to maximize your RPM, as against a vehicle with each great and small tires.[10] X Research source

Who makes the good torque converter?

  1. BorgWarner, EXEDY, and Schaeffler are well-respected vendors. BorgWarner gears their merchandise towards all-wheel-drive vehicles, whereas EXEDY expands its market to each CVTs and common automobiles with automated transmissions. Additionally, Schaeffler focuses on torque converters for hybrid vehicles.[11] X Research source
    • Yutaka Giken and ZF Friedrichshafen are additionally well-respected manufacturers.

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